The most often used definitions of corruption have taken the place of the clichés from the time When corruption was thought a convention, a well hidden “alternative way of living”.Nowadays Conventions are pointless and associations are direct and clear-cut: a lie, an abuse, a theft, bribe taking, a Speculation, blackmailing. The sides in the corruption process are clearly defined: ''the one offering the bribe and the one taking the bribe''. Vulgarization of corruption itself brings archetypal and pragmatic notions of it. Nowadays corruption is most often interpreted by the general public as a series of interactions:
“They want – I give”, “I want – I get”.
Corruption is a process of decay which can never be eradicated completely from any society. The most important reasons contributing ti this decay are bad interaction between the specialized bodies for combating corruption and the citizens, the extensive prerogatives of public officials, the widespread bureaucracy ,insufficient political will for dealing with corruption, the low remuneration of public officials, lack of effective measures and sanctions, the possibility for public officials to obtain illegal benefit, weaknesses of the legislation, lack of willingness on the part of the citizens to contribute to, the process of combating corruption. So corruption is to be done everywhere. Everyone wants to fulfill their needs or to get success so corrupt ways are used for that so you find corruption on all levels that’s why there are so many reason of corruption.
The basic reason for corruption is low salaries as everyone is finding a way to better their living standard as much as they can; it’s also a human nature that he has everything more and more. So mostly corruption is to be seen where there are people having fewer salaries they use corrupt ways to achieve the goal. It is true that they do not have any other way to fulfill their wants.
Lack of accountability and regulation:
Corruption is more prevalent because lack of accountability and regulation. If money that the government receives is going in their pockets rather than being spent on the people who need it, on their education, health and so on, then the consequences are obvious that many people don't pay taxes because they don't trust the government to spend it on the people, they think they are corrupt and the money would just disappear. And so this creates a vicious circle. People don't see the government doing anything to help them, so they think it's a waste of time to pay taxes. The government doesn't get any money from taxes and so can't do anything to help people.
Corruption on the low-level is systematic and fed by desperation. In many of these nations, it's almost expected that a policeman or clerk will earn a fair amount of income through bribes, so the states pay those workers less based on that assumption. Bribes and the like become a kind of tip. Even in situations where this is not true, there's still the temptation of extra cash, whether necessary to feed one's family. The "every man for himself" attitude in some cultures encourages this.
Corruption prone institutions
According to many people corruption can only thrive in bureaucratic societies or countries where every single matter, law and order is under the control of corrupt government. The reality does not authenticate just this idea. At an "elite" level, corruption is the everywhere. Then, what developing countries are full of, is non-elite corrupt people. Corruption is normally associated with the government, police, legal system and other bodies that control and allocate public resources. The police are responsible for maintaining order and justice in a society. A police department for instance can be compared to other governmental bodies for simple understanding of the term. e.g.: a cop stops a car to make a ticket, but is also willing to accept a small bribe to let it pass (or even stop the car to get a bribe in the first place). Some drivers will also try to bribe the cop, to avoid the ticket. Mostly the same at all administration levels, at any given bureaucrat institution. Of course, virtually all government regulated institutions (police, hospitals, schools, etc) have their employee being overly underpaid, which helps a lot to lead into this. The reason why a policeman for example would accept a bribe to let someone go free is that they are often underpaid and extra cash is always a tempting prospect. The wide consensus across surveys points to the police as being one of the most corrupt institutions in Pakistan. According to the organization Global Integrity appointments in the police force are often based on political considerations. Police officers frequently have conflicts of interest due to personal loyalties and family connections. It is also well known that in Pakistan, influential landlords decide the appointment of law enforcement officers in their area, with police officers acting on their behalf. Unlawful police methods do not solely affect poor people. Businesses also complain that they suffer from extortion by the police, for instance in the form of bogus traffic fines. Basically Police misconduct is a topic of great concern worldwide. However, the causes of police corruption are remarkably different. Understanding the unique political, historical, legal, and economic institutions of a country is essential in identifying the potential for police misconduct. The boundary line between corrupt and non-corrupt activities is quite difficult to define. A police officer who takes advantage of his power and authority for personal and organizational gains can easily be described as a corrupt police officer. The term “police corruption” has been used to describe many activities: bribery; violence and brutality; fabrication and destruction of evidence; racism; and, favoritism. Not only lower ranked officers are involved in such malpractices, but also senior officers, and those ranked below them are involved in organized corruption. The position is best summed up in the words of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Home Affairs in Pakistan: Today we have a police, which is politicized and Politically polarized. For it has become a pawn in the hands of its masters. In Return, the policemen get political patronage, which has become essential for there Survival.
The other sector in Pakistan which is seen as notoriously inefficient and corrupt is the judiciary. According to TI Pakistan’s 2006 survey, 96 percent of the people who came in contact with the judiciary encountered corruption and 44 percent of them reported having to pay a bribe to a court official. The judiciary is also viewed as lacking independence from the executive and contributing to a general culture of impunity. According to Global Integrity, the procedure for selecting judges at the national level is not transparent and selection procedures are often made in exchange for political favors. Despite these problems, judges are exempt from oversight and investigations by Pakistan's national anticorruption agency, the National Accountability Bureau. The business community generally lacks confidence in the capacity of the judiciary to enforce rules and laws, and the settlement of disputes often involves paying bribes. For example, the judiciary takes an average of 880 days to settle a business dispute at a cost of 24 percent of the claim the country’s tax and public finance administration has also been affected by corruption. The World Bank’s 2004 Public Expenditure Management report on the country showed widespread collusion between taxpayers and tax officials, a situation that has led to tax evasion and lack of tax compliance In addition, a financial accountability assessment undertaken by the World Bank in 2003 showed that, although good progress had been achieved in public sector accountability, major gaps and weaknesses remain in the accountability chain. These have arisen mainly from low institutional and staff capacity and uneven implementation of reform measures. The report emphasized the urgent need to strengthen financial reporting, to institute adequate controls at all levels of government — especially at the provincial level1 — and to maintain effective tracking of social spending. A more recent report on public sector accounting in Pakistan further shows its public sector accounting and auditing does not comply with international Standards. More attention needs to be paid to summary tables of outstanding public sector accounting and to good reporting and disclosure processes following audits. The high prevalence of corruption in the sectors covered in the national survey suggest that the problem likely cuts across federal, provincial and local administrations since service delivery is divided between different political levels. Moreover, the country is administratively structured in such a way that there are 100 times more junior-level civil servants than senior officers, creating a ready group to engage in the petty abuses currently plaguing Pakistan. However, recent findings suggest that the devolution of government to the local level may provide benefits by increasing the good governance and accountability needed to help fight corruption. (Business Recorder May 25, 2007¬)
According to a survey carried out by Transparency International the corruptions factors are as follows along with their results in terms of percentage.
TI-Survey on Causes of Corruption-Mega & Petty
• Lack of Accountability (31.68%)
• Low salaries (16.54%)
• Monopoly of power (16.43%)
• Discretionary powers (12.61%)
• Lack of transparency (9.97%)
• Power of influential people (4.59%)
• Red Tapism (4.28%) • Others (4.9%)
Source: Government of Pakistan
Now in order to combat them few measures need to be taken are as follows
• Strengthening of Institutions
• Supremacy of Law
• Prevalence of code of conduct
• Proper check and balance on all officials as well as citizens
• Increase in salaries and incentives
• Restoration of judiciary on free basis
• Hiring of new employees on merit rather than beneficiaries
• Proper awareness campaigns need to be formed
• There should be proper ehtesaab for everyone who completes tenure of governance
• Defect positions should be reordered making it into and effect position